Judas Iskariot

Apostle Judas

the disciple Judas
Judas Iskariot

The traitor Judas Iscariot was the son of Simon, who lived in Kerioth, Judah. He betrayed Jesus in exchange for thirty coins and then hanged himself (Matthew 26:14; Matthew 26:15; Matthew 26:16).

Judas, der Verräter, ist das ultimative Rätsel des Neuen Testaments, denn es ist schwer vorstellbar, wie jemand, der Jesus so nahe stand, der so viele Wunder erlebte und so viel von den Lehren des Meisters hörte, ihn jemals in die Hände seiner Feinde verraten konnte .

His name appears on three different lists of the Twelve Apostles (Matthäus 10:4; Markus 3:19; Luke 6:19). Judas is said to have come from Judah near Jericho. He was a Judean, while the other disciples were Galileans. He was the band’s treasurer and one of its most outspoken leaders.

Judas is said to have been a violent Jewish nationalist who had followed Jesus in the hope that his nationalistic flame and dreams would be realized through Him. No one can deny that Judas was greedy and took advantage of his position as band treasurer to steal from the common purse.

There is no clear reason why Judas betrayed his master; however, it was not his betrayal that led to Jesus’ death on the cross; it was our sins. His apostolic symbol is a noose or a money purse with coins falling from it.

Birth/Early Life

Er wurde in Kerioth geboren, einer kleinen Stadt im Süden von Judäa. Als er noch ein Kind war, zogen seine Eltern nach Jericho, und erarbeitete in den verschiedenen Unternehmen seines Vaters until he became interested in John the Baptist’s preaching and work. Having a Sadducee’s background meant that his parents disowned him when he joined John’s disciples.

Christ and Judas
Christ and Judas

Judas mit Jesus

There was nothing about Jesus that Judas admired more than his overall attractive and exquisitely charming personality. The traitor was never able to overcome his Judean prejudices against his Galilean associates, and he would even criticize Jesus in his mind.

Dieser selbstzufriedene Judäer wagte es, in seinem eigenen Herzen den Mann zu kritisieren, den elf der Apostel als den vollkommenen Mann betrachteten, als den „einen insgesamt Lieblichen und den Höchsten unter Zehntausenden“.

Er glaubte, dass Jesus zögerte und Angst hatte, seine Macht und Autorität geltend zu machen.

Judas war für Jesus ein Glaubensabenteuer. Der Meister erkannte die Schwäche dieses Apostels von Anfang an und war sich der Risiken einer Aufnahme in die Gemeinschaft bewusst. Es liegt jedoch in der Natur der Söhne Gottes, jedem geschaffenen Wesen eine volle und gleiche Chance auf Erlösung und Überleben zu geben.

Judas betrays his Friend
Betraying Friends

Betrayal of Jesus

Er verriet Jesus, was zu seiner Verhaftung und anschließenden Verurteilung durch die jüdische Justiz, das Sanhedrin, führte. Nach seiner Verurteilung wurde Jesus auf Anraten jüdischer Priester und Ältester von den römischen Behörden in Judäa gekreuzigt.

Es gibt jedoch verschiedene Berichte über seinen Verrat. Wissenschaftler haben im Laufe der Zeit verschiedene Motive für die Tat vorgeschlagen und sogar die Richtigkeit der Behauptung, er habe Jesus verraten, in Frage gestellt.

The ‘Gospel of Mark’ contains the earliest account of his betrayal. According to this gospel, when Judas went to the Jewish priests to betray Jesus, he was offered 30 pieces of silver as a bribe. At the same time, it was unclear whether he went to the priests to betray Jesus for money or some other reason.

Laut dem „Matthäus-Evangelium“ verriet er Jesus für ein Bestechungsgeld von 30 Silberstücken von jüdischen Priestern.

Nach diesem Evangelium identifizierte er Jesus mit einem Kuss (der in der Geschichte als „Kuss des Judas“ verewigt wurde) und offenbarte ihn den Soldaten des jüdischen Hohepriesters Joseph Kaiphas, der Jesus dann den Soldaten von Pontius Pilatus, dem Römischer Statthalter von Judäa. Laut dem Evangelium sah Jesus voraus, dass Judas ihn verriet.

Die Bestechung von 30 Silberstücken wird im „Johannesevangelium“ erwähnt, aber nicht im „Johannesevangelium“. Es beschreibt ihn als unzufrieden mit dem Geld, das für Parfüm ausgegeben wurde, um Jesus zu salben, obwohl es für die Armen hätte ausgegeben werden können. Laut dem Evangelium hat Jesus seinen Verrat vorausgesehen und zugelassen.

Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation de Moulins; vitrail néogothique du XIXe siècle. La Cène. Détail: Judas.
Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation de Moulins; vitrail néogothique du XIXe siècle. La Cène. Détail: Judas.

Achievements

Judas Iskariot, einer von Jesus'ursprünglich 12 Jünger, traveled with him and studied under him for three years. He, like the other 11 disciples, was summoned and sent by Jesus to preach the gospel of God’s kingdom, cast out demons, and heal the sick.

Judas-Evangelium

Die National Geographic Society kündigte 2006 die Entdeckung und Übersetzung des „Evangeliums von Judas“ an, einem lange verschollenen Text, der vermutlich um 150 n. Chr. geschrieben und dann im dritten Jahrhundert aus dem Griechischen ins Koptische kopiert wurde.

Das Judasevangelium, auf das der Kleriker Irenäus im zweiten Jahrhundert erstmals schriftlich anspielte, ist einer von vielen alten Texten, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten entdeckt wurden und die mit den Gnostikern in Verbindung gebracht wurden, einer (meist) christlichen Gruppe, die von der frühen Kirche als Ketzer verurteilt wurden Führer für ihre unorthodoxen spirituellen Überzeugungen.

Rather than condemning Judas as Jesus’ betrayer, the author of the Gospel of Judas extolled him as Jesus’ favorite disciple. According to this version of events, Jesus asked Judas to betray him to the authorities for him to be freed from his physical body and fulfill his destiny of saving humanity.

Brooklyn Museum - The Kiss of Judas (Le baiser de Judas) - James Tissot
Brooklyn Museum - The Kiss of Judas (Le baiser de Judas) - James Tissot

Das Judas-Evangelium hat eine Debatte ausgelöst, wobei einige Gelehrte behaupteten, dass die Version der National Geographic Society eine Fehlübersetzung des koptischen Textes sei und dass die Öffentlichkeit in die Irre geführt wurde, dass das Dokument einen „edlen Judas“ darstellte.

Auf jeden Fall wurde das Judasevangelium mindestens ein Jahrhundert nach dem Tod von Jesus und Judas geschrieben, daher enthält es wenig historisch zuverlässige Informationen über ihr Leben und bietet sicherlich nicht das fehlende Glied zum Verständnis der wahren Beweggründe von Judas Iskariot.

“The truth is we don’t know why Judas did what he did,”

notes Cargill.

“The grand irony, of course, is that without [Judas’s betrayal], Jesus doesn’t get handed over to the Romans and crucified. Without Judas, you don’t have the central component of Christianity—you don’t have the Resurrection.”

Judas Returns the Silver Coins
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 1606 – 1669
Judas gibt die Silbermünzen zurück
Öl auf Holz (79 × 102 cm) — 1629
Privatsammlung

Death of Judas

His death is described in a variety of ways. These descriptions of his death were gleaned from the New Testament and other sources. After betraying Jesus, Judas was filled with regret and remorse, according to the ‘Gospel of Matthew.’

According to the gospel, he went to return the 30 pieces of silver he received as a bribe for betraying Jesus to the Jewish priests. Because it was blood money, the priests refused to accept it. As a result, he threw away the 30 pieces of silver and left. He then Selbstmord begangen durch Erhängenselbst.

Who Replaced Judas?

Matthias was selected to replace Judas as recorded in Apostelgeschichte 1:15; Acts 1:16; Acts 1:17; Acts 1:18; Acts 1:19; Acts 1:20; Apostelgeschichte 1:21; Apostelgeschichte 1:22, Apostelgeschichte 1:23; Acts 1:24; Acts 1:25; Acts 1:-26. The other man who was also in consideration was named Joseph or Barsabas and surnamed Justus. Lots were cast and eventually, Matthias was chosen.

„Du, o Herr, der du die Herzen aller kennst, zeige, welchen von diesen beiden du gewählt hast, an diesem Dienst und Apostelamt teilzunehmen, von dem Judas durch Übertretung gefallen ist, damit er an seinen Platz gehen kann.“

Und er wurde mit den elf Aposteln gezählt.“ Die Bibel enthält nur wenige Details zu Matthias, aber sie sagt, dass Matthias von seiner Taufe bis zu seiner Auferstehung bei Jesus war.

Außer der Apostelgeschichte wird Matthias nirgendwo sonst in der Bibel erwähnt. Nach historischen Quellen lebte Matthias bis 80 n. Chr. und verbreitete das Evangelium an den Ufern des Kaspischen Meeres und Kappadokiens.

Black Halo
Schwarzer Heiligenschein

Schlüssel zum Mitnehmen

Judas Iskariot wird nur für eine Sache erinnert: Jesus Christus zu verraten. Auch wenn Judas später sein Bedauern zum Ausdruck brachte, wurde sein Name im Laufe der Geschichte zum Synonym für Verräter und Abtrünnige. Seine Motivation schien Gier zu sein, aber einige Gelehrte glauben, dass unter seinem Verrat politische Motivationen lauerten.

Im Judentum des ersten Jahrhunderts bedeutete der Name Judas „Lobe den Herrn“. Der Nachname „Iscariot“ bedeutet „Mann von Kerioth“, einer Stadt im Süden Judäas. Judas war der einzige der Zwölf, der nicht aus Galiläa stammte.

Das Markusevangelium sagt am wenigsten über Judas aus und schreibt sein Handeln keinem bestimmten Motiv zu. Judas ist einfach die Person, die Jesus den Hohenpriestern übergeben hat. Matthäus' Bericht gibt mehr Details und malt Judas als skrupellosen Mann.

Luke goes even further, saying that Satan entered Judas.

The Devil devouring Judas Iscariot
The Devil devouring Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot Characteristics

Characteristics of Judas Iscariot through time always made people have mixed feelings about Judas. Some experience a sense of hatred toward him, others feel pity, and some have even considered him a hero. No matter how you react to Judas, one thing is sure; believers can benefit greatly by taking a serious look at his life. During Jesus’ public ministry, Judas traveled everywhere with Him and lived in close proximity to Him but never seemed to share His spirit.

Some have suggested that Jesus got His directions wrong in choosing Judas to be one of His disciples. Following the Merkmale der 12 Apostel, this cannot possibly be so; however, one of Christ’s divine qualities was His ability to know what was in every man (see John 2:25). Whatever His reason for choosing Judas, we can be sure it was not because of a mistake.

Hypocrite

Having chosen Judas to be one of the disciples, Jesus gives him a trusted position as keeper of the common purse. However, he proved to be unworthy of that trust, taking for himself the money that had been donated to support Jesus and the disciples.

Judas’ greed and hypocrisy were also shown by his willingness to betray the Son of God for the price of a slave (Exodus 21:32) and in his pretended concern for the welfare of the poor when he criticized Mary of Bethany for anointing Jesus’ feet with costly ointment.

His continued presence in the apostolic band must have daily involved him in hypocrisy as his heart became increasingly turned away from Jesus.

Judas kisses Jesus
Judas kisses Jesus

Traitor Judas

The Gospel writers, on almost every occasion, when Judas’ name is mentioned, refer to him as the betrayer of Jesus. The betrayal of Christ was indeed a heinous crime, and there can be no doubt that Judas acted as the instrument of Satan in perpetuating it.

In fact, in one place, Jesus describes Judas as a devil (John 6:70), and it appears that Satan entered into him following his rejection of Jesus’ final gesture of love at das letzte Abendmahl(John 13:27). Jesus also describes him as “the son of perdition” (John 12:17), and nothing good is ever said about him except, perhaps, that he was capable of feeling remorse after seeing the result of his evil crime.

Betrayal foretold

Jesus, being the person He was the divine Son of God, knew both the strengths and weaknesses of every one of His disciples. He took steps also to alert them to the evil possibilities that lay deep in their hearts.

When Peter insisted that he would never deny Him, Jesus tried to prepare him for the next hours by telling him that he would deny Him, not just once or twice, but three times.

He does something similar with Judas Iscariot on the eve of His betrayal as if He wants to allow him to repent of his evil intentions. As we know, however, Judas is so bent on evil that he remains unmoved even when treated as an honored guest at the Das letzte Abendmahl.

Iscariot is understood to be equivalent to ish-Kerioth, that is, “man of Kerioth.” Kerioth was a town in South Judea. The other disciples were all from Galilee. The southern Jews regarded the northerners with a certain superiority.

Betrayal Accomplished

Following the raising of Lazarus from the dead, the high priest and the Jewish leaders were deeply concerned that Jesus might recruit more followers to His cause and determined to put Him to death. Jesus’ high level of popularity at this time, however, meant that they must go about their plans with great care and caution. Judas’ offer of betrayal was an opportunity that was too good to miss.

His knowledge of Jesus’ movements would enable him to lead the soldiers to a place where they could arrest Him without too much of the populace being aware of it. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Judas greets Jesus with the word “Master!” followed by a spurious show of affection, which results in Christ’s arrest.

Judas Iscariot the Traitor kisses Jesus
Judas Iscariot the Traitor kisses Jesus

Remorseful

Once Christ has been condemned, and it becomes obvious that He is to die on the cross, the full weight of what He has done bursts in upon Judas’ conscience. Returning to the temple, he pleads with the priests to take back the money, confessing,

“I have betrayed innocent blood”.

They coldly reply that his problems are his affair and that it means nothing to them.

Judas then throws the thirty pieces of silver at their feet and, overcome by remorse, goes out and hangs himself. He has served the priests’ unholy enterprise, and, having no further use for him, they abandon him to the inferno that his rejection of Christ has made inevitable.

Replaced

As a result of Judas’ suicide, the number of disciples is reduced to eleven. Peter quotes prophecies from the Scripture, which, under the Holy Spirit’s inspiration, applies to Judas. These Scriptures (Psalm 69:25;Psalm 109:8) show that a suitable person should fill the vacant office the qualifications being that he should have accompanied the apostles during the time of Jesus’ public ministry and that he was a witness of the Resurrection.

Two candidates are selected and, after prayer, lots are cast. The one on whom the lot falls is Heiliger Matthias, who then becomes the twelfth apostle. Nothing more is said of Matthias as an individual, only corporately as one of the twelve.

Zusammenfassung der Merkmale

Judas Iscariot is always the last disciple placed on the list of twelve. Judas Iscariot is often referred to as Judas the Betrayer, and he is known and will forever be known for the one act of betrayal of the Lord. 

Judas was the disciple who did not truly believe in the love of Jesus, and when the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus, Judas provided them with that way by identifying Jesus with a kiss in return for thirty pieces of silver. Judas is frequently referred to as the only disciple who was separated from God in his death as he never had salvation due to his betrayal, thievery, and lies.

Ressourceneigenschaften

http://ubdavid.org/bible/characters3/characters3-11.html
https://us15.campaignarchive.com/?u=c154da2d2cc06f2b64216a0d5&id=b2b255c4cb
https://www.blueletterbible.org/study/misc/apostles.cfm
https://www.exploringlifesmysteries.com/twelve-disciples/#john
https://gbible.org/doctrines-post/the-12-apostles/

Summary

Judas Iskariot war einer der 12 wichtigsten Jünger Jesu Christi und der Begründer des Christentums. Judas verriet seinen Meister, Jesus Christus, was zu seiner Kreuzigung wegen Ketzerei führte. Judas ist zu einem Synonym für eine Person geworden, die eine höhere Sache oder eine große Person verrät, obwohl sie im Mainstream-Christentum als Mann mit niedriger Moral oder Inkarnation des Teufels geschmäht wird.

Historically, the legend of Judas was used to justify the persecution of the Jewish community in Europe and the Middle East. From the beginning of Christianity to the majority of the twentieth century, he was almost always portrayed negatively in art, literature, drama, and other forms of popular culture.

Dantes „Inferno“, eines der berühmtesten Werke der westlichen Literatur, zeigt ihn als einen bösen Charakter, der neben den Mördern von Julius Caesar, Brutus und Cassius in den untersten Kreis der Hölle verurteilt ist.

Scholarly studies and popular culture have featured more sympathetic portrayals of Judas since the 1970s. In the 1970s, the discovery of the Gospel of Judas in Egypt was a revelation. Its translation, published in 2006, depicted Judas Iscariot’s life in a new light and aided in the reassessment of his image.

Ressourcen

https://truthbook.com/jesus/passion-of-the-christ/who-was-judas-iscariot
https://www.bibleinfo.com/en/questions/who-were-twelve-disciples#judas
https://www.history.com/news/why-judas-betrayed-jesus
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Judas-Iscariot
https://www.learnreligions.com/judas-iscariot-betrayer-of-jesus-christ-701078

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