Judas Iscariotes

Apostle Judas

the disciple Judas
Judas Iscariotes

The traitor Judas Iscariot was the son of Simon, who lived in Kerioth, Judah. He betrayed Jesus in exchange for thirty coins and then hanged himself (Matthew 26:14; Mateus 26:15; Matthew 26:16)

Judas, o traidor, é o enigma final do Novo Testamento porque é difícil imaginar como alguém tão próximo de Jesus, que testemunhou tantos milagres e ouviu tanto dos ensinamentos do Mestre, poderia algum dia entregá-lo nas mãos de seus inimigos .

His name appears on three different lists of the Twelve Apostles (Matthew 10:4; Mark 3:19; Luke 6:19). Judas is said to have come from Judah near Jericho. He was a Judean, while the other disciples were Galileans. He was the band’s treasurer and one of its most outspoken leaders.

Judas is said to have been a violent Jewish nationalist who had followed Jesus in the hope that his nationalistic flame and dreams would be realized through Him. No one can deny that Judas was greedy and took advantage of his position as band treasurer to steal from the common purse.

There is no clear reason why Judas betrayed his master; however, it was not his betrayal that led to Jesus’ death on the cross; it was our sins. His apostolic symbol is a noose or a money purse with coins falling from it.

Birth/Early Life

Ele nasceu em Kerioth, uma pequena cidade no sul da Judéia. Seus pais se mudaram para Jericó quando ele era criança, e eletrabalhou em vários empreendimentos comerciais de seu pai until he became interested in John the Baptist’s preaching and work. Having a Sadducee’s background meant that his parents disowned him when he joined John’s disciples.

Christ and Judas
Christ and Judas

Judas com Jesus

There was nothing about Jesus that Judas admired more than his overall attractive and exquisitely charming personality. The traitor was never able to overcome his Judean prejudices against his Galilean associates, and he would even criticize Jesus in his mind.

Este autossuficiente judeu ousou criticar em seu próprio coração o homem a quem onze dos apóstolos consideravam o homem perfeito, como "o único totalmente amável e o mais importante entre dez mil".

Ele acreditava que Jesus estava hesitante e com medo de afirmar seu poder e autoridade.

Judas foi uma aventura de fé para Jesus. O Mestre reconheceu a fraqueza do apóstolo desde o início e estava bem ciente dos riscos de admiti-lo na comunhão. No entanto, é da natureza dos Filhos de Deus fornecer a cada ser criado uma chance plena e igual de salvação e sobrevivência.

Judas betrays his Friend
Betraying Friends

Betrayal of Jesus

Ele traiu Jesus, o que resultou em sua prisão e subsequente condenação pelo corpo judiciário judeu, o Sinédrio. Após sua convicção, Jesus foi crucificado pelas autoridades romanas na Judéia, a conselho de sacerdotes e anciãos judeus.

No entanto, existem diferentes relatos de sua traição. Os estudiosos propuseram vários motivos para o ato ao longo do tempo e até questionaram a veracidade da afirmação de que ele traiu Jesus.

The ‘Gospel of Mark’ contains the earliest account of his betrayal. According to this gospel, when Judas went to the Jewish priests to betray Jesus, he was offered 30 pieces of silver as a bribe. At the same time, it was unclear whether he went to the priests to betray Jesus for money or some other reason.

De acordo com o 'Evangelho de Mateus', ele traiu Jesus por um suborno de 30 moedas de prata de sacerdotes judeus.

De acordo com esse evangelho, ele identificou Jesus com um beijo (imortalizado na história como o “Beijo de Judas”) e o revelou aos soldados do sumo sacerdote judeu José Caifás, que então entregou Jesus aos soldados de Pôncio Pilatos, os Governador romano da Judéia. De acordo com o evangelho, Jesus previu que Judas o trairia.

O suborno de 30 moedas de prata é mencionado no 'Evangelho de João', mas não é mencionado no 'Evangelho de João'. Descreve-o como insatisfeito com o dinheiro gasto em perfumes para ungir Jesus, quando poderia ter sido gasto com os pobres. De acordo com o evangelho, Jesus previu sua traição e permitiu que ela ocorresse.

Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation de Moulins; vitrail néogothique du XIXe siècle. La Cène. Détail: Judas.
Basilique-cathédrale Notre-Dame de l'Annonciation de Moulins; vitrail néogothique du XIXe siècle. La Cène. Détail: Judas.

Achievements

Judas Iscariotes, um dos de Jesus12 discípulos originais, traveled with him and studied under him for three years. He, like the other 11 disciples, was summoned and sent by Jesus to preach the gospel of God’s kingdom, cast out demons, and heal the sick.

Evangelho de judas

A National Geographic Society anunciou em 2006 a descoberta e a tradução do “Evangelho de Judas”, um texto há muito perdido que se pensava ter sido escrito por volta de 150 DC e depois copiado do grego para o copta no século III.

O Evangelho de Judas, mencionado pela primeira vez por escrito pelo clérigo Irineu do segundo século, é um dos muitos textos antigos descobertos nas últimas décadas que foram ligados aos gnósticos, um grupo (principalmente) cristão que foi condenado como herege pela igreja primitiva líderes por suas crenças espirituais heterodoxas.

Rather than condemning Judas as Jesus’ betrayer, the author of the Gospel of Judas extolled him as Jesus’ favorite disciple. According to this version of events, Jesus asked Judas to betray him to the authorities for him to be freed from his physical body and fulfill his destiny of saving humanity.

Brooklyn Museum - The Kiss of Judas (Le baiser de Judas) - James Tissot
Brooklyn Museum - The Kiss of Judas (Le baiser de Judas) - James Tissot

O Evangelho de Judas gerou debate, com alguns estudiosos afirmando que a versão da National Geographic Society foi uma tradução incorreta do texto copta e que o público foi induzido a acreditar que o documento retratava um "nobre Judas".

Em qualquer caso, o Evangelho de Judas foi escrito pelo menos um século depois da morte de Jesus e Judas, portanto, contém poucas informações historicamente confiáveis sobre suas vidas e certamente não fornece o elo que faltava para entender as verdadeiras motivações de Judas Iscariotes.

“The truth is we don’t know why Judas did what he did,”

notes Cargill.

“The grand irony, of course, is that without [Judas’s betrayal], Jesus doesn’t get handed over to the Romans and crucified. Without Judas, you don’t have the central component of Christianity—you don’t have the Resurrection.”

Judas Returns the Silver Coins
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 1606 - 1669
Judas retorna as moedas de prata
óleo no painel (79 × 102 cm) - 1629
coleção privada

Death of Judas

His death is described in a variety of ways. These descriptions of his death were gleaned from the New Testament and other sources. After betraying Jesus, Judas was filled with regret and remorse, according to the ‘Gospel of Matthew.’

According to the gospel, he went to return the 30 pieces of silver he received as a bribe for betraying Jesus to the Jewish priests. Because it was blood money, the priests refused to accept it. As a result, he threw away the 30 pieces of silver and left. He then cometeu suicídio por enforcamentoele mesmo.

Who Replaced Judas?

Matias was selected to replace Judas as recorded in Acts 1:15; Acts 1:16; Acts 1:17; Acts 1:18; Acts 1:19; Acts 1:20; Acts 1:21; Acts 1:22, Acts 1:23; Acts 1:24; Acts 1:25; Acts 1:-26. The other man who was also in consideration was named Joseph or Barsabas and surnamed Justus. Lots were cast and eventually, Matthias was chosen.

“Vós, Senhor, que conheceis os corações de todos, mostra qual destes dois escolheu para tomar parte neste ministério e apostolado de que Judas por transgressão caiu, para que ele pudesse ir para o seu lugar.”

E ele foi contado com os onze apóstolos. ” A Bíblia é esparsa em detalhes adicionais relacionados a Matias, mas diz que Matias estava com Jesus desde Seu batismo até sua ressurreição.

Além do livro de Atos, Matias não é mencionado em nenhum outro lugar da Bíblia. De acordo com fontes históricas, Matias viveu até 80 DC e espalhou o evangelho nas margens do Mar Cáspio e da Capadócia.

Black Halo
Black Halo

Key Takeaway

Judas Iscariotes é lembrado apenas por uma coisa: trair Jesus Cristo. Embora Judas tenha expressado arrependimento mais tarde, seu nome se tornou sinônimo de traidores e vira-casacas ao longo da história. Sua motivação parecia ser a ganância, mas alguns estudiosos acreditam que motivações políticas se escondiam por trás de sua traição.

No judaísmo do primeiro século, o nome Judas significava "louvar ao Senhor". O sobrenome “Iscariotes” significa “homem de Kerioth”, uma cidade no sul da Judéia. Judas era o único dos doze que não era da Galiléia.

O Evangelho de Marcos revela o mínimo sobre Judas, atribuindo suas ações a nenhum motivo particular. Judas é simplesmente a pessoa que entregou Jesus aos principais sacerdotes. O relato de Mateus dá mais detalhes e pinta Judas como um homem inescrupuloso.

Luke goes even further, saying that Satan entered Judas.

The Devil devouring Judas Iscariot
The Devil devouring Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot Characteristics

Characteristics of Judas Iscariot through time always made people have mixed feelings about Judas. Some experience a sense of hatred toward him, others feel pity, and some have even considered him a hero. No matter how you react to Judas, one thing is sure; believers can benefit greatly by taking a serious look at his life. During Jesus’ public ministry, Judas traveled everywhere with Him and lived in close proximity to Him but never seemed to share His spirit.

Some have suggested that Jesus got His directions wrong in choosing Judas to be one of His disciples. Following the characteristics of the 12 apostles, this cannot possibly be so; however, one of Christ’s divine qualities was His ability to know what was in every man (see John 2:25). Whatever His reason for choosing Judas, we can be sure it was not because of a mistake.

Hypocrite

Having chosen Judas to be one of the disciples, Jesus gives him a trusted position as keeper of the common purse. However, he proved to be unworthy of that trust, taking for himself the money that had been donated to support Jesus and the disciples.

Judas’ greed and hypocrisy were also shown by his willingness to betray the Son of God for the price of a slave (Exodus 21:32) and in his pretended concern for the welfare of the poor when he criticized Mary of Bethany for anointing Jesus’ feet with costly ointment.

His continued presence in the apostolic band must have daily involved him in hypocrisy as his heart became increasingly turned away from Jesus.

Judas kisses Jesus
Judas kisses Jesus

Traitor Judas

The Gospel writers, on almost every occasion, when Judas’ name is mentioned, refer to him as the betrayer of Jesus. The betrayal of Christ was indeed a heinous crime, and there can be no doubt that Judas acted as the instrument of Satan in perpetuating it.

In fact, in one place, Jesus describes Judas as a devil (John 6:70), and it appears that Satan entered into him following his rejection of Jesus’ final gesture of love at the Last Supper (John 13:27). Jesus also describes him as “the son of perdition” (John 12:17), and nothing good is ever said about him except, perhaps, that he was capable of feeling remorse after seeing the result of his evil crime.

Betrayal foretold

Jesus, being the person He was the divine Son of God, knew both the strengths and weaknesses of every one of His disciples. He took steps also to alert them to the evil possibilities that lay deep in their hearts.

When Peter insisted that he would never deny Him, Jesus tried to prepare him for the next hours by telling him that he would deny Him, not just once or twice, but three times.

He does something similar with Judas Iscariot on the eve of His betrayal as if He wants to allow him to repent of his evil intentions. As we know, however, Judas is so bent on evil that he remains unmoved even when treated as an honored guest at the Last Supper.

Iscariot is understood to be equivalent to ish-Kerioth, that is, “man of Kerioth.” Kerioth was a town in South Judea. The other disciples were all from Galilee. The southern Jews regarded the northerners with a certain superiority.

Betrayal Accomplished

Following the raising of Lazarus from the dead, the high priest and the Jewish leaders were deeply concerned that Jesus might recruit more followers to His cause and determined to put Him to death. Jesus’ high level of popularity at this time, however, meant that they must go about their plans with great care and caution. Judas’ offer of betrayal was an opportunity that was too good to miss.

His knowledge of Jesus’ movements would enable him to lead the soldiers to a place where they could arrest Him without too much of the populace being aware of it. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Judas greets Jesus with the word “Master!” followed by a spurious show of affection, which results in Christ’s arrest.

Judas Iscariot the Traitor kisses Jesus
Judas Iscariot the Traitor kisses Jesus

Remorseful

Once Christ has been condemned, and it becomes obvious that He is to die on the cross, the full weight of what He has done bursts in upon Judas’ conscience. Returning to the temple, he pleads with the priests to take back the money, confessing,

“I have betrayed innocent blood”.

They coldly reply that his problems are his affair and that it means nothing to them.

Judas then throws the thirty pieces of silver at their feet and, overcome by remorse, goes out and hangs himself. He has served the priests’ unholy enterprise, and, having no further use for him, they abandon him to the inferno that his rejection of Christ has made inevitable.

Replaced

As a result of Judas’ suicide, the number of disciples is reduced to eleven. Peter quotes prophecies from the Scripture, which, under the Holy Spirit’s inspiration, applies to Judas. These Scriptures (Psalm 69:25Psalm 109:8) show that a suitable person should fill the vacant office the qualifications being that he should have accompanied the apostles during the time of Jesus’ public ministry and that he was a witness of the Resurrection.

Two candidates are selected and, after prayer, lots are cast. The one on whom the lot falls is São Matias, who then becomes the twelfth apostle. Nothing more is said of Matthias as an individual, only corporately as one of the twelve.

Summary Characteristics

Judas Iscariot is always the last disciple placed on the list of twelve. Judas Iscariot is often referred to as Judas the Betrayer, and he is known and will forever be known for the one act of betrayal of the Lord. 

Judas was the disciple who did not truly believe in the love of Jesus, and when the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus, Judas provided them with that way by identifying Jesus with a kiss in return for thirty pieces of silver. Judas is frequently referred to as the only disciple who was separated from God in his death as he never had salvation due to his betrayal, thievery, and lies.

Resources Characteristics

http://ubdavid.org/bible/characters3/characters3-11.html
https://us15.campaignarchive.com/?u=c154da2d2cc06f2b64216a0d5&id=b2b255c4cb
https://www.blueletterbible.org/study/misc/apostles.cfm
https://www.exploringlifesmysteries.com/twelve-disciples/#john
https://gbible.org/doctrines-post/the-12-apostles/

Summary

Judas Iscariotes foi um dos 12 primeiros discípulos de Jesus Cristo e o fundador do Cristianismo. Judas traiu seu mestre, Jesus Cristo, levando à sua crucificação por heresia. Judas se tornou sinônimo de uma pessoa que trai uma causa superior ou uma grande pessoa, apesar de ser insultado no cristianismo dominante como um homem de moral baixa ou a encarnação do Diabo.

Historically, the legend of Judas was used to justify the persecution of the Jewish community in Europe and the Middle East. From the beginning of Christianity to the majority of the twentieth century, he was almost always portrayed negatively in art, literature, drama, and other forms of popular culture.

O 'Inferno' de Dante, uma das obras mais famosas da literatura ocidental, o retrata como um personagem maligno condenado ao círculo inferior do Inferno, ao lado dos assassinos de Júlio César, Bruto e Cássio.

Scholarly studies and popular culture have featured more sympathetic portrayals of Judas since the 1970s. In the 1970s, the discovery of the Gospel of Judas in Egypt was a revelation. Its translation, published in 2006, depicted Judas Iscariot’s life in a new light and aided in the reassessment of his image.

Recursos

https://truthbook.com/jesus/passion-of-the-christ/who-was-judas-iscariot
https://www.bibleinfo.com/en/questions/who-were-twelve-disciples#judas
https://www.history.com/news/why-judas-betrayed-jesus
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Judas-Iscariot
https://www.learnreligions.com/judas-iscariot-betrayer-of-jesus-christ-701078

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