São Tiago Filho de Zebedeu

saint james son of zebedee

St. James the Greater

According to the New Testament, James the Great, also known as James son of Zebedee or Saint James the Greater, was one of Jesus’ Twelve Apostles and part of His inner circle.

One of the James Facts is that according to Catholic tradition, Apostle James spread Christianity in Spain.

He was beheaded in Jerusalem in 44, and his remains were later transported to Galicia in a stone boat to the site of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral.

Patron saints are not unique to Roman Catholicism, but also to Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism, and some branches of Islam.

O santo padroeiro dos peregrinos e da Espanha é São Tiago Maior, Filho de Zebedeu.

St James the Greater was one of Jesus Christ’s disciples and was thought to be his cousin by the Virgin Mary’s sister, and the brother of St Jude Thaddeus.

He shared a fishing boat with his brother John, his father Zebedee, and his partner Simon. John and James were disciples of John the Baptist and, later, of Jesus.

When Jesus called James and his brother John to be “fishers of men,” they left their lives as fishermen. He was one of Jesus’ disciples until he was crucified by the Romans.

lucas cranach the elder, saint james the greater, woodcut, rosenwald collection, 1952.8.219
"Lucas Cranach the Elder, Saint James the Greater, woodcut, Rosenwald Collection, 1952.8.219"

Birth/Origins

According to Christian myth, James was born in Galilee around the year 5 BC. His parents appear to have been well-to-do. His father, Zebedee, was a Sea of Galilee fisherman who probably lived in or near Bethsaida, possibly in Capharnaum, and had some boatmen or hired men.

His mother, Salome, was one of the pious women who later followed Christ and “ministered to him of their substance.”

His brother was John the Apostle, who, according to Christian tradition, was the only Apostle who did not die as a martyr and is the author of several New Testament books. According to the Church Fathers, his brother is the same person as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, and the Beloved Disciple.

Because of their impulsive personalities, both brothers were nicknamed “Boanerges” (“Sons of Thunder”) and were among the first disciples to join Jesus Christ.

According to the Synoptic Gospels, James and John were in a boat with their father mending their nets when Jesus called them to follow him.

James was one of the chosen three who witnessed the Transfiguration (metamorphosis), the resurrected daughter of Jairus, and the agony in Gethsemani.

Achievements

St James, or St Lago as it is spelled in Spanish, is also the great military patron of Spain. However, his mission to defend the Christian Church against invaders was postponed until after his death.

During the famous battle of Clavijo, he appeared unexpectedly on a milk-white charger, waving a white standard and leading the Christians to victory.

This manifestation occurred in response to the soldiers’ use of his name as the battle cry on that particular day, “Sant lago!” As a result, the ancient city of Santiago was named after him, and the cathedral was built in his honor.

saint paul the apostle church (westerville, ohio) - stained glass, arcade, saint james the greater
Saint Paul the Apostle Church (Westerville, Ohio) - stained glass, arcade, Saint James the Greater

Life Lessons

Despite everything James went through as a disciple of Jesus, his faith remained shaky until the resurrection. When he and his brother asked Jesus for the honor of sitting beside him in glory, Jesus only promised them a share of his suffering (Mark 10:35; Mark 10:36; Mark 10:37; Mark 10:38; Mark 10:39; Mark 10:40; Mark 10:41; Mark 10:42; Mark 10:43; Mark 10:44; Mark 10:45).

They were discovering that the greatest calling of a Jesus follower is to serve others. Following Jesus Christ can lead to adversity, persecution, and even death, but the reward is eternal life with him in heaven.

Travels

An apocryphal text known as The Gospel of the Twelve suggested in the first century that when the Holy Spirit descended on the apostles at Pentecost (Acts 2), they were each empowered to speak the language of the people they were called to reach (like the Tower of Babel, but in reverse). James spoke Latin, which was primarily spoken in the Roman Empire’s western half.

However, it wasn’t until hundreds of years later that someone suggested James travel to Spain.

A text known as the Breviary of the Apostles, written in the sixth century, claimed that James spread the gospel to Spain and was buried somewhere near the sea, west of Spain.

This assertion was repeated in poems, hymns, biographies, and commentaries in the seventh and eighth centuries. In the early ninth century, a bright star is said to have guided a shepherd to Saint James’ tomb in Galicia, in what is now known as Santiago de Compostela.

To accomplish this, James would have had to leave Jerusalem to evangelize Spain, then return to Jerusalem to be executed in 44 AD, and then have his remains transported back to Spain to be buried.

Na época, essa lenda foi amplamente aceita, e o local do enterro tornou-se uma das peregrinações cristãs mais populares. No entanto, a maioria dos estudiosos modernos encontrou poucas evidências para apoiar o ministério de James na Espanha ou seu suposto enterro lá.

Even Paul makes it appear less credible. In Romans 15, he says,

“It has always been my ambition to preach the gospel where Christ was unknown so that I would not be building on someone else’s foundation” (Romans 15:20),

and he plans to go to Spain next (Romans 15:23; Romans 15:24).

Nobody has taken the gospel to Spain, but it would be strange for Paul to say,

“I prefer to go where nobody has spread the gospel before, which is why I’m going where James went.”

The majority of scholars believe James never made it to Spain. He died in Jerusalem, early in the Christian movement. This Spanish missionary journey was not mentioned again until the sixth century, and the discovery of his burial site was simply too fantastical. Despite its mythical origins, this pilgrimage, known as the Camino de Santiago, has remained popular to this day.

lucas cranach the elder, saint james the greater
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Saint James the Greater

St. James with Jesus

James was one of the apostles who sought power and authority over the others, which Jesus chastised:

“And Zebedee’s sons, James and John, come to him, saying, “Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatever we shall desire.” And he said to them, “What do you want me to do for you?” They said to him, “Grant us a seat in thy glory, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left.”

(Matthew 10:35; Matthew 10:36; Matthew 10:37; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 10:39; Matthew 10:40)

Jesus aproveita esta ocasião para reiterar sua lição sobre como uma pessoa que quer ser “grande” no reino de Deus deve aprender a ser o “menor” aqui na terra, servindo a todos e colocando suas necessidades e desejos acima dos seus.

Não apenas Tiago e João são castigados por buscarem sua glória, mas o restante dos discípulos também é castigado por ter inveja disso.

Esta é uma das poucas vezes na Bíblia em que Jesus é citado como tendo muito a dizer sobre poder político. Ele se concentra em questões religiosas na maioria das vezes. No capítulo 8, ele advertiu contra ser tentado pelo “fermento dos fariseus... e pelo fermento de Herodes”, mas quando se trata de detalhes, ele sempre se concentrou nos problemas dos fariseus.

st. james, son of zebedee
Statue of Saint James, Son of Zebedee

Arrest

James was not the first Christian martyr, as Stephen was, who was stoned to death in Acts 7:54; Acts 7:55; Acts 7:56; Acts 7:57; Acts 7:58; Acts 7:59 Acts 7:60. James died as a result of being beheaded, as recorded in the Book of Acts (Acts 12:1; Acts 12:2; Acts 12:3): “About that time, Herod laid violent hands on some of the church’s members.” He killed James, John’s brother, with the sword, and when he saw that it pleased the Jews, he arrested Peter as well.

Isso foi durante o período dos Pães Asmos.” Como resultado, o apóstolo Tiago foi o primeiro a morrer como mártir. Apenas um apóstolo, ironicamente, escapou da morte por sua fé, e esse foi seu irmão, o apóstolo João.

The Death of James

Mártires e confessores são os dois tipos de santos. Um mártir cristão é alguém que é executado por suas crenças cristãs. Confessores são pessoas que morreram como resultado de causas naturais.

In 44 AD, King Herod Agrippa I captured and beheaded James for heresy after he made the perilous journey back to Jerusalem to pay his respects. Even though James died in Jerusalem, his ashes were returned to his beloved Galicia, and a church was built over them. This was the beginning of Santiago de Compostela’s cathedral, and the body of St. James is said to be buried there to this day.

artus wolffort saint james the greater reading e1592421579565
São Tiago Maior

Key Takeaway

Porque ele foi um dos apóstolos mais francos, e dado queRei Herodes killed James, it could have been James’ proclivity to speak boldly for Christ and speak against the evil that Herod was well known for. In any case, the Apostle James was completely transformed by the power of the Holy Spirit.

He was impulsive, outspoken, easily provoked to anger, and highly impulsive, and had a so-called “hair trigger” at one time, but like John, who became known as “the apostle whom Jesus loved” (John 13:23), he became a new creation in Christ (2 Corinthians 5:17) and was forever changed, and today is one of the 12 apostles who will rule or judge the 12 tribes of Israel in God’s coming kingdom (Matthew 19:28). That was the Apostle, James.

Summary

Tiago foi um dos primeiros doze discípulos. Quando Jesus chamou os irmãos, Tiago e João eram pescadores no mar da Galiléia com seu pai Zebedeu. Eles deixaram seu pai e seus negócios imediatamente para seguir o jovem rabino. Como James é sempre mencionado primeiro, ele provavelmente era o mais velho dos dois irmãos.

Jesus invited James, John, and Peter three times to witness events that no one else witnessed: the raising of Jairus’ daughter from the dead (Mark 5:37; Mark 5:38; Mark 5:39; Mark 5:40; Mark 5:41; Mark 5:42; Mark 5:43; Mark 5:44; Mark 5:45; Mark 5:46; Mark 5:47), the transfiguration (Matthew 17:1; Matthew 17:2; Matthew 17:3), and Jesus’ agony in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:36; Matthew 26:37).

james the greater apostle hajdudorog frame
James the Greater Apostle Hajdudorog Frame

Mas James não estava acima de cometer erros. Quando uma aldeia samaritana rejeitou Jesus, ele e João desejaram invocar fogo do céu. Como resultado, eles foram apelidados de “Boanerges”, ou “filho do trovão”. A mãe de Tiago e João foi longe demais quando pediu a Jesus que desse a seus filhos posições especiais em seu reino.

Por causa de sua devoção a Jesus, Tiago foi o primeiro dos doze apóstolos a ser martirizado. Por ordem do rei Herodes Agripa I da Judéia, ele foi morto à espada por volta de 44 dC, como parte da perseguição geral da igreja primitiva.

No Novo Testamento, há dois outros homens chamados Tiago: Tiago, filho de Alfeu, outro dos apóstolos escolhidos de Cristo, e Tiago, irmão do Senhor, líder da igreja de Jerusalém e autor do livro de Tiago.

Frequently Asked Questions

Quem é Tiago na Bíblia?

James was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. He is sometimes referred to as James the Greater to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus, who is also known as James the Lesser. James was martyred under King Herod Agrippa I in 44 AD. According to tradition, his remains were later brought to Spain, where they are now enshrined in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

Que milagres São Tiago Maior realizou?

The Book of Acts records that James performed a number of miracles, including healing the sick, raising the dead, and casting out demons. He was also responsible for bringing one of the first Gentile converts to Christianity, converted following a vision of Jesus.

Por que a concha de vieira é o símbolo de São Tiago?

There are a couple of different theories out there as to why the scallop shell is the symbol of James. One theory says that because James’s dia de banquete falls on July 25th, which is also the feast day of Saint Helena (the mother of Constantine), scallops were traditionally eaten on her feast day. James was traditionally represented holding a pilgrim’s staff and shell in early Christian iconography, so it’s possible that the connection between him and the shell dates back to this early religious symbolism.
Another theory is that during the Middle Ages, pilgrims would often pick up shells as souvenirs from their travels to Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain, where James is said to be buried.

Onde está o túmulo de São Tiago?

The tomb of St. James is located in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain. It is said to contain the remains of the apostle James the Greater, who is believed to have been martyred in Jerusalem in AD 44. Santiago de Compostela was a major pilgrimage destination in the Middle Ages, and the tomb of St. James was highly venerated by pilgrims. The tomb is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Por que São Tiago Maior é conhecido?

Há muitas coisas pelas quais São Tiago Maior é conhecido, mas talvez a principal delas seja seu zelo por espalhar o evangelho. Para Tiago, não havia evangelismo demais; ele estava sempre procurando maneiras de alcançar mais pessoas com as boas novas de Jesus Cristo. Essa atitude o levou a adotar alguns métodos pouco ortodoxos, como entrar em território inimigo para pregar o evangelho ou viajar para regiões remotas que nunca tinham ouvido falar do cristianismo. Sua ousadia e compromisso lhe renderam a reputação de um dos evangelistas mais eficazes de sua época.

O que é o símbolo de São Tiago Maior?

São Tiago Maior é um símbolo de fé e devoção. Ele foi um dos doze apóstolos de Jesus Cristo e sua festa é celebrada em 25 de julho. Segundo a lenda, São Tiago levou o exército cristão à vitória contra os muçulmanos na Espanha. Por causa disso, ele também é conhecido como Santiago Matamoros (São Tiago, o matador de mouros). Hoje, os devotos de São Tiago usam um distintivo de concha de vieira como sinal de sua peregrinação ao seu santuário em Compostela, Espanha. A concha de vieira também serve como um lembrete de que todos somos chamados a ser peregrinos em nossa jornada pela vida, buscando a Deus com todo o nosso coração, mente, alma e força.

Recursos

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