使徒之死

在这里,我们看看使徒的死,这个问题经常被问到“使徒是怎么死的?”。研究表明,正确回答问题并不总是那么简单,原因很简单,因为大部分知识已经消失。

虽然一些圣使徒的大部分生平不为人知,但我们确实知道有几位使徒成为了殉道者,但这些使徒是如何死去的?

我们知道最初的十二个门徒;在他的三年事工中,与耶稣同行的人。在圣经中,当我们被告知耶稣如何以及何时拣选每个人时,我们就会对这十二个人进行介绍。

因此,在整个福音书中,给出了许多事件,让我们深入了解使徒及其与我们的主的互动。

我们对某些人的了解比其他人多,但我们知道使徒是如何死的吗?

how did the apostles die?
the 12 Apostles

去使万民作门徒

耶稣对门徒的最后一句话是,

所以你们要去使万民作我的门徒,奉父、子、圣灵的名给他们施洗,并教导他们遵守我所吩咐你们的一切。当然,我永远和你在一起,甚至到了这个时代的尽头。”(马太福音 28:19-20)

而这正是他们所做的。

他们到世界不同的地方,传授“好消息”。

我们被告知五旬节后他们生活的一些事情,但我们对使徒是如何死亡的知之甚少。在十二个人中,圣经告诉我们其中只有两个人死了:雅各和犹大。

以叛徒犹大开始使徒之死的名单更多是因为我们都知道这个故事。有些人可能会说犹大不是使徒,我们把他加在这里是因为他是原12弟子.

犹大深感内疚,不明白耶稣的宽恕,自杀了。 (马太福音 27:3-5)。

卖耶稣的犹大见耶稣被定了罪,就改变主意,把那三十块钱拿回来给祭司长和长老,说:

“我因出卖无辜的血而犯罪。”

他们说,

“那对我们来说是什么?你自己看吧。”

他把银子丢在殿里,就走,上吊了。

其他使徒之死

In answer to the question, How Did the Apostles Die? we’ll go to the other ten original apostles giving what information we have found about how they died.

圣彼得

saint peter

因为耶稣对彼得说,“所以我对你说,你是彼得,我将在这块磐石上建造我的教堂,阴间的大门不能胜过它。我会给你天国的钥匙。在地上捆绑的,在天上也要捆绑,在地上释放的,在天上也要释放。”

天主教会认为彼得是第一位教皇。

教会传统告诉我们,彼得在大约公元 64 年被尼禄皇帝杀死。

一个名为《彼得行传》的二世纪伪经是第一个声称彼得被倒钉十字架的记载,这显然是因为他认为自己不配与耶稣同死。

在约翰福音中,耶稣虽然有些神秘,但在他说时告诉彼得这个命运:

“真的,我告诉你,你年轻的时候,你曾经系好自己的腰带,想去哪儿就去哪儿。但等你老了,你会伸出双手,别人会系上你的腰带,带你去你不想去的地方。” (约翰福音 21:18)

彼得在十字架上殉道。他要求将头朝下钉在十字架上,因为他认为自己不配像耶稣那样死去。

彼得去世时大约 64 岁。

His apostolic symbol is a cross upside down with crossed keys.

圣詹姆斯大帝

saint james the greater

圣詹姆斯大帝 was the first apostle to be martyred for following Jesus. His death is one of the only two apostles’ death that is recorded in Scripture. In Acts 12: 1-2, it is written,

“大约在这个时候,希律王逮捕了一些属于教会的人,想要迫害他们。他让约翰的兄弟雅各用刀杀了他。”

犹太人想阻止基督教的传播,希律王渴望在他们中获得声望。他相信迫害基督徒会帮助他实现这种声望。学者们普遍认为,詹姆斯于公元 44 年在耶路撒冷被杀。

公元四世纪,凯撒利亚的尤西比乌斯引用亚历山大的克莱门特关于雅各之死的话:

“It appears that the guard who brought him into court was so moved when he saw him testify that he confessed that he, too, was a Christian. So they were both taken away together, and on the way, he asked James to forgive him. James thought for a moment, then he said ‘I wish you peace,’ and kissed him. So both were beheaded at the same time.” (Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History)

圣雅各殉道时大约 40 岁。

他的使徒象征是一把剑。

圣安德鲁

saint andrew

圣安德鲁 was Peter’s brother and it is believed that he, too, was crucified. An apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, tells of Andrew’s death. According to the account given, Andrew, like his brother, did not believe himself worthy to die in the same manner as Jesus and was also crucified. His crucifixion, however, was different in that he was bound, rather than nailed, to an X-shaped cross. He was martyred in the Greek city of Patras in 60 AD.

遗憾的是,这个帐户的来源并不可靠。它来自的伪书还包括许多安德鲁所行奇迹的记述。尤其是其中之一断言,他挂在十字架上三天不间断地讲道。

安德鲁去世时大约 50 岁。

他的使徒标志是一个 X 形的十字架。

圣菲利普

saint philip

Because many Christians confused Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist, an accurate account of Philip’s death is not certain. Adding to the uncertainty is the fact that stories are different and it is not clear which story refers to which Philip.

虽然不确定使徒腓力是如何死的,但据信他于公元 80 年左右在古希腊城市希拉波利斯去世。以弗所的Polycrates。

菲利普的行为对他的死提供了最详尽的描述。

这段记载说,菲利普改变了古罗马官员的妻子。这位官员对此非常生气,以至于他把菲利普和巴塞洛缪都倒钉在十字架上。腓力挂在那里,一边讲道。人群对他的讲道感到鼓舞,并要求释放他。官员释放了巴塞洛缪,但没有释放菲利普。

圣菲利普的象征之一是篮子,因为他参与了五千人的喂养。

圣巴塞洛缪

saint bartholomew

There is more than one version of how the Apostle Bartholomew’s died. It is almost certain he was martyred but there are several ways his martyrdom occurred. 圣巴塞洛缪 was probably martyred—but like many of the apostles, there are several ways it may have happened. The most well-known account is that he was scourged and then beheaded.
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Another account is in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs which claims that in India,

“He was at length cruelly beaten and then crucified by the impatient idolaters.”

黄金传奇(圣徒的生活)有几个记载:

“对他的热情方式有不同的看法。因为有福的多罗修斯说他被钉在十字架上,并且还说:巴塞洛缪向印度人传道,并按照马太的正确语言向他们传讲福音。他死在亚美尼亚大城阿尔班,头朝下被钉在十字架上。

圣狄奥多鲁斯说他被剥了皮,很多书都说他只是被斩首。这种矛盾可能会以这种方式被玷污,以至于有人说他被钉在十字架上,在他死之前被取下来,因为遭受更大的折磨,他被剥了皮,最后被斩首。”

圣托马斯

saint thomas

There is little debate regarding the death of 圣托马斯. The Acts of Thomas tells us that he was martyred in Mylapore, India, where he was stabbed with spears. Syrian Christian tradition specifies Thomas was martyred in Mylapore on July 3, 72 AD, noting that he was killed with a spear.

早期的教会日历条目写道:

“7 月 3 日,在‘印度’被长矛刺穿的圣托马斯。”

没有关于他的死的更多信息或传统。

托马斯去世时大约 61 岁。

他的使徒象征是矛。

圣马太

saint matthew

像大多数其他使徒一样,圣马太之死也有一些前后矛盾的记载。关于这位使徒是如何死的,有几种不同的说法。亚历山大的克莱门特引用了新约最早的注释家之一赫拉克伦的话说,马太自然而然地死去了:

“But neither will this utterance be found to be spoken universally; for all the saved have confessed with the confession made by the voice, and departed. Of whom are Matthew, Philip, Thomas, Levi, and many others.” (Stromata)

However, most scholars don’t accept Heracleon’s account. Because they are closer to the time when the events actually happened, earlier records are considered to be more dependable. Earlier accounts agree that 圣马太 was martyred. Disagreement is in that they do not agree on how or where this occurred. The choices are, burned, beheaded, stoned, or stabbed.

John Foxe’s famous Book of Martyr’s record of Matthew states:

“他工作的场景是帕提亚和埃塞俄比亚,他在后一个国家殉难,在公元 60 年在纳达巴市被戟杀死。”

小圣詹姆斯

saint james the lesser

小圣詹姆斯 was a significant leader in the Church, but James son of Alphaeus (James the lesser), was mentioned only twice in Scripture and is one of 最暧昧的使徒.与其他一些使徒一样,亚耳腓的儿子雅各是如何死的也存在分歧。

传统告诉我们,他在讲道时被推下庙顶,被棍棒殴打,然后被石头砸死。然而,另一个传统声称他在埃及传教并在那里的奥斯特拉金市被钉死在十字架上。

据说生活在二、三世纪的神学家希波吕托斯在《论基督的十二使徒》中记载了雅各的死:“亚勒腓的儿子雅各在耶路撒冷传道时被犹太人用石头打死,葬在那里。 .他死于公元 62 年。

小詹姆斯的使徒标志是木匠锯和富勒棒。

狂热者圣西门

saint simon the zealot

狂热者圣西门 is one of the vaguest apostles. Although he was one of the 12 main disciples of Jesus, other than being named in the lists of the apostles, nothing more is told of him in the Gospels. There are many accounts of Simon’s death but since the earliest account did not come until centuries after his death, it is difficult to know which is reliable.

公元五世纪,乔雷尼的摩西写道,狂热者西门在伊比利亚王国殉难。

黄金传奇说他于公元 65 年在波斯殉道。

埃塞俄比亚基督徒相信他在撒玛利亚被钉十字架。

在 16 世纪,Justus Lipsius 声称他被锯成两半。

东方传统声称他在埃德萨年老时去世。

所以,实际上,他是如何死的,目前还不得而知。

圣约翰

saint john

圣约翰 is considered to be the only apostle to die of old age. As Jesus was dying, he commended His mother, Mary to His beloved disciple, John. After Mary’s Assumption into Heaven, John went to Ephesus. There he wrote his three epistles. From Ephesus, he was banished to the island of Patmos.

正是在那里,他写下了《启示录》。他最终回到以弗所,在那里自然死亡。

公元 2 世纪末和 3 世纪初的基督教作家特图良写道,在罗马人放逐约翰之前,他们将他带进了一个斗兽场,并将他浸在一桶沸腾的油中。当他安然无恙地出现时,整个体育馆都皈依了基督教。这就是为什么一些图像显示约翰在一桶沸腾的油中。

圣裘德

saint jude

It is customarily believed that 圣裘德 was martyred in Syria when on his missionary journey with Simon the Zealot. Since this tradition comes from the account given in Acts of Simon and Jude, it is not considered absolute. In the story of Saint Jude, we read more about his background and life.

总结,使徒是怎么死的?

问题“使徒是怎么死的?”是因为你可以阅读不容易回答。一些使徒的死亡被认为是教会历史而不是辩论。对其他使徒死亡的描述是相互矛盾的,因此这些使徒是如何死亡的可能值得怀疑。毫无疑问的是这些人对耶稣的爱和他们对耶稣的奉献传讲祂的话.

FAQ How Did the Apostles Die?

Was Peter crucified upside down?

Yes, according to Catholic tradition, 圣彼得 was crucified upside down. The reason for this is that he requested to be crucified in this way, as he felt unworthy to die in the same manner as his Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. This story is recounted in the apocryphal Acts of Peter, which records that when Peter was brought before Pontius Pilate to be condemned, he requested that he be crucified upside down. Pilate agreed to this request, and so Peter was executed in this way.

Who was the first apostle to die?

The first apostle to die was St. James, who was martyred by King Herod in 44 AD. According to Catholic tradition, he was beheaded with a sword.
Catholics believe that apostles are special witnesses of Christ and that they have a unique role in the Church. In addition to being the first apostle to die, St. James is also recognized as the patron saint of Spain and missionaries.

Who was the last apostle to die?

The last apostle to die was Saint John the Evangelist, who is said to have lived until he was nearly 100 years old. He died peacefully in Ephesus, surrounded by his disciples. Of course, there are some who would argue that Saint Paul was the last apostle to die, as he is believed to have been martyred around the same time as Saint Peter. But regardless of which apostle died last, they, the 12 Apostles, all truly were heroic figures whose legacies continue to inspire us today.

资源 How Did the Apostles Die?

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