使徒之死

在這裡,我們看看使徒的死,這個問題經常被問到“使徒是怎麼死的?”。研究表明,正確回答問題並不總是那麼簡單,原因很簡單,因為大部分知識已經消失。

雖然一些聖使徒的大部分生平不為人知,但我們確實知道有幾位使徒成為了殉道者,但這些使徒是如何死去的?

我們知道最初的十二個門徒;在他的三年事工中,與耶穌同行的人。在聖經中,當我們被告知耶穌如何以及何時揀選每個人時,我們就會對這十二個人進行介紹。

因此,在整個福音書中,給出了許多事件,讓我們深入了解使徒及其與我們的主的互動。

我們對某些人的了解比其他人多,但我們知道使徒是如何死的嗎?

12 apostles
十二使徒

去使萬民作門徒

耶穌對門徒的最後一句話是,

所以你們要去使萬民作我的門徒,奉父、子、聖靈的名給他們施洗,並教導他們遵守我所吩咐你們的一切。當然,我永遠和你在一起,甚至到了這個時代的盡頭。”(馬太福音 28:19-20)

而這正是他們所做的。

他們到世界不同的地方,傳授“好消息”。

我們被告知五旬節後他們生活的一些事情,但我們對使徒是如何死亡的知之甚少。在十二個人中,聖經告訴我們其中只有兩個人死了:雅各和猶大。

以叛徒猶大開始使徒之死的名單更多是因為我們都知道這個故事。有些人可能會說猶大不是使徒,我們把他加在這裡是因為他是原12弟子.

猶大深感內疚,不明白耶穌的寬恕,自殺了。 (馬太福音 27:3-5)。

賣耶穌的猶大見耶穌被定了罪,就改變主意,把那三十塊錢拿回來給祭司長和長老,說:

“我因出賣無辜的血而犯罪。”

他們說,

“那對我們來說是什麼?你自己看吧。”

他把銀子丟在殿裡,就走,上吊了。

其他使徒之死

In answer to the question, How Did the Apostles Die? we’ll go to the other ten original apostles giving what information we have found about how they died.

聖彼得

saint peter

因為耶穌對彼得說,“所以我對你說,你是彼得,我將在這塊磐石上建造我的教堂,陰間的大門不能勝過它。我會給你天國的鑰匙。在地上捆綁的,在天上也要捆綁,在地上釋放的,在天上也要釋放。”

天主教會認為彼得是第一位教皇。

教會傳統告訴我們,彼得在大約公元 64 年被尼祿皇帝殺死。

一個名為《彼得行傳》的二世紀偽經是第一個聲稱彼得被倒釘十字架的記載,這顯然是因為他認為自己不配與耶穌同死。

在約翰福音中,耶穌雖然有些神秘,但在他說時告訴彼得這個命運:

“真的,我告訴你,你年輕的時候,你曾經係好自己的腰帶,想去哪兒就去哪兒。但等你老了,你會伸出雙手,別人會系上你的腰帶,帶你去你不想去的地方。” (約翰福音 21:18)

彼得在十字架上殉道。他要求將頭朝下釘在十字架上,因為他認為自己不配像耶穌那樣死去。

彼得去世時大約 64 歲。

His apostolic symbol is a cross upside down with crossed keys.

聖詹姆斯大帝

saint james the greater

聖詹姆斯大帝 was the first apostle to be martyred for following Jesus. His death is one of the only two apostles’ death that is recorded in Scripture. In Acts 12: 1-2, it is written,

“大約在這個時候,希律王逮捕了一些屬於教會的人,想要迫害他們。他讓約翰的兄弟雅各用刀殺了他。”

猶太人想阻止基督教的傳播,希律王渴望在他們中獲得聲望。他相信迫害基督徒會幫助他實現這種聲望。學者們普遍認為,詹姆斯於公元 44 年在耶路撒冷被殺。

公元四世紀,凱撒利亞的尤西比烏斯引用亞歷山大的克萊門特關於雅各之死的話:

“It appears that the guard who brought him into court was so moved when he saw him testify that he confessed that he, too, was a Christian. So they were both taken away together, and on the way, he asked James to forgive him. James thought for a moment, then he said ‘I wish you peace,’ and kissed him. So both were beheaded at the same time.” (Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History)

聖雅各殉道時大約 40 歲。

他的使徒象徵是一把劍。

聖安德魯

saint andrew

聖安德魯 was Peter’s brother and it is believed that he, too, was crucified. An apocryphal book, The Acts of Andrew, tells of Andrew’s death. According to the account given, Andrew, like his brother, did not believe himself worthy to die in the same manner as Jesus and was also crucified. His crucifixion, however, was different in that he was bound, rather than nailed, to an X-shaped cross. He was martyred in the Greek city of Patras in 60 AD.

遺憾的是,這個帳戶的來源並不可靠。它來自的偽書還包括許多安德魯所行奇蹟的記述。尤其是其中之一斷言,他掛在十字架上三天不間斷地講道。

安德魯去世時大約 50 歲。

他的使徒標誌是一個 X 形的十字架。

聖菲利普

saint philip

Because many Christians confused Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist, an accurate account of Philip’s death is not certain. Adding to the uncertainty is the fact that stories are different and it is not clear which story refers to which Philip.

雖然不確定使徒腓力是如何死的,但據信他於公元 80 年左右在古希臘城市希拉波利斯去世。以弗所的Polycrates。

菲利普的行為對他的死提供了最詳盡的描述。

這段記載說,菲利普改變了古羅馬官員的妻子。這位官員對此非常生氣,以至於他把菲利普和巴塞洛繆都倒釘在十字架上。腓力掛在那裡,一邊講道。人群對他的講道感到鼓舞,並要求釋放他。官員釋放了巴塞洛繆,但沒有釋放菲利普。

聖菲利普的象徵之一是籃子,因為他參與了五千人的餵養。

聖巴塞洛繆

saint bartholomew

There is more than one version of how the Apostle Bartholomew’s died. It is almost certain he was martyred but there are several ways his martyrdom occurred. 聖巴塞洛繆 was probably martyred—but like many of the apostles, there are several ways it may have happened. The most well-known account is that he was scourged and then beheaded.
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Another account is in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs which claims that in India,

“He was at length cruelly beaten and then crucified by the impatient idolaters.”

黃金傳奇(聖徒的生活)有幾個記載:

“對他的熱情方式有不同的看法。因為有福的多羅修斯說他被釘在十字架上,並且還說:巴塞洛繆向印度人傳道,並按照馬太的正確語言向他們傳講福音。他死在亞美尼亞大城阿爾班,頭朝下被釘在十字架上。

聖狄奧多魯斯說他被剝了皮,很多書都說他只是被斬首。這種矛盾可能會以這種方式被玷污,以至於有人說他被釘在十字架上,在他死之前被取下來,因為遭受更大的折磨,他被剝了皮,最後被斬首。”

聖托馬斯

saint thomas

There is little debate regarding the death of 聖托馬斯. The Acts of Thomas tells us that he was martyred in Mylapore, India, where he was stabbed with spears. Syrian Christian tradition specifies Thomas was martyred in Mylapore on July 3, 72 AD, noting that he was killed with a spear.

早期的教會日曆條目寫道:

“7 月 3 日,在‘印度’被長矛刺穿的聖托馬斯。”

沒有關於他的死的更多信息或傳統。

托馬斯去世時大約 61 歲。

他的使徒象徵是矛。

聖馬太

saint matthew

像大多數其他使徒一樣,聖馬太之死也有一些前後矛盾的記載。關於這位使徒是如何死的,有幾種不同的說法。亞歷山大的克萊門特引用了新約最早的註釋家之一赫拉克倫的話說,馬太自然而然地死去了:

“But neither will this utterance be found to be spoken universally; for all the saved have confessed with the confession made by the voice, and departed. Of whom are Matthew, Philip, Thomas, Levi, and many others.” (Stromata)

However, most scholars don’t accept Heracleon’s account. Because they are closer to the time when the events actually happened, earlier records are considered to be more dependable. Earlier accounts agree that 聖馬太 was martyred. Disagreement is in that they do not agree on how or where this occurred. The choices are, burned, beheaded, stoned, or stabbed.

John Foxe’s famous Book of Martyr’s record of Matthew states:

“他工作的場景是帕提亞和埃塞俄比亞,他在後一個國家殉難,在公元 60 年在納達巴市被戟殺死。”

小聖詹姆斯

saint james the lesser

小聖詹姆斯 was a significant leader in the Church, but James son of Alphaeus (James the lesser), was mentioned only twice in Scripture and is one of 最曖昧的使徒.與其他一些使徒一樣,亞耳腓的兒子雅各是如何死的也存在分歧。

傳統告訴我們,他在講道時被推下廟頂,被棍棒毆打,然後被石頭砸死。然而,另一個傳統聲稱他在埃及傳教並在那裡的奧斯特拉金市被釘死在十字架上。

據說生活在二、三世紀的神學家希波呂托斯在《論基督的十二使徒》中記載了雅各的死:“亞勒腓的兒子雅各在耶路撒冷傳道時被猶太人用石頭打死,葬在那裡。 .他死於公元 62 年。

小詹姆斯的使徒標誌是木匠鋸和富勒棒。

狂熱者圣西門

saint simon the zealot

狂熱者圣西門 is one of the vaguest apostles. Although he was one of the 12 main disciples of Jesus, other than being named in the lists of the apostles, nothing more is told of him in the Gospels. There are many accounts of Simon’s death but since the earliest account did not come until centuries after his death, it is difficult to know which is reliable.

公元五世紀,喬雷尼的摩西寫道,狂熱者西門在伊比利亞王國殉難。

黃金傳奇說他於公元 65 年在波斯殉道。

埃塞俄比亞基督徒相信他在撒瑪利亞被釘十字架。

在 16 世紀,Justus Lipsius 聲稱他被鋸成兩半。

東方傳統聲稱他在埃德薩年老時去世。

所以,實際上,他是如何死的,目前還不得而知。

聖約翰

saint john

聖約翰 is considered to be the only apostle to die of old age. As Jesus was dying, he commended His mother, Mary to His beloved disciple, John. After Mary’s Assumption into Heaven, John went to Ephesus. There he wrote his three epistles. From Ephesus, he was banished to the island of Patmos.

正是在那裡,他寫下了《啟示錄》。他最終回到以弗所,在那裡自然死亡。

公元 2 世紀末和 3 世紀初的基督教作家特圖良寫道,在羅馬人放逐約翰之前,他們將他帶進了一個鬥獸場,並將他浸在一桶沸騰的油中。當他安然無恙地出現時,整個體育館都皈依了基督教。這就是為什麼一些圖像顯示約翰在一桶沸騰的油中。

聖裘德

saint jude

It is customarily believed that 聖裘德 was martyred in Syria when on his missionary journey with Simon the Zealot. Since this tradition comes from the account given in Acts of Simon and Jude, it is not considered absolute. In the story of Saint Jude, we read more about his background and life.

總結,使徒是怎麼死的?

問題“使徒是怎麼死的?”是因為你可以閱讀不容易回答。一些使徒的死亡被認為是教會歷史而不是辯論。對其他使徒死亡的描述是相互矛盾的,因此這些使徒是如何死亡的可能值得懷疑。毫無疑問的是這些人對耶穌的愛和他們對耶穌的奉獻傳講祂的話.

資源

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